Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Keith Mierzejewski Methods of Critical Thinking Research Paper December 11, 2010 Nature vs. Nurture One of the most enduring debates in the field of psychology is the controversial idea of nature vs. nurture. Throughout the endless history of the debate, no clear conclusion has been met, only hypotheses have been formed. At the center of the debate, human behaviors, ideas, and feelings are being determined, whether they are learned or inherited. Determining physical traits, such as eye color or hair color, are simple because they are hereditary traits. The idea of having a certain personality, intelligence, or ability is under discussion because scientists cannot determine if these traits are learned, or predetermined by genes. TheÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If identical twins were truly identical, then their development in two different environments would not affect their behavioral differences. Identical twins that are not separated may still differ from each other. Dr. Farber conducted a study that measured the degree of being separated and I.Q. test scores. On average, Dr. Farber discovered that the more separated the twins were, the greater the difference between their I.Q. scores. If intelligence had been hereditary, then these identical twins that were reared apart and separated would still have the same amount of intelligence; yet, they do not (Gruber). When determining whether homosexuality is caused by an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s environment and surroundings or by genetics, the answer is unknown. To this day, researchers are still pondering whether or not this Ã¢â¬Å"gay geneÃ¢â¬ exists. Most gays and lesbians believe their sexual orientation is an inborn trait or developed in earlier years of life. However, opponents of gay rights believe homosexuality is a behavior that is created through the conscience thought, and this behavior can be changed or developed at will. In 1993, a study was done Dean Hamer, a scientist from the National Cancer Institute. He reported that he had linked male homosexuality to a small region, specifically the end, of one human chromosome: the x-shaped chromosome. Thirty-three of forty pairs of gay brothers were found to have this identical piece ofShow MoreRelatedNature Vs Nurture : Is The Nature Or Nurture?1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAoS 3: Student Directed Research Investigation Unit 1 Psychology - Megan Rodrigues RESEARCH QUESTION How is the nature vs nurture debate related to a consideration of the mental disorder, schizophrenia? INTRODUCTION Schizophrenia is categorized by thoughts or experiences that seem abnormal with reality, disorganized speech or behaviour and decreased participation in regular daily activities. Difficulty with memory and concentration are sometimes also present. The two hit hypothesis generally refersRead MoreNature Vs Nurture : Nature Or Nurture874 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Nature or Nurture. Nature may be all of the genes and hereditary factors with which influence them to become who they are such as physical appearances and personality characteristics. Nurturing impacts peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives as well as how they are raised and all the environmental factors. In combination, these qualities can be the true identity of oneself. Many people may argue that nurture appears to a play huge factor in the two, but others may think otherwise. Not having both as a characteristic canRead MoreNature Vs Nurture : Nature And Nurture1821 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesNature and nurture are usually seen as very different things, but they are actually somewhat similar and even integrated. There is a huge debate over which holds more influence over how people develop and whether they behave based on genes or their environment. In SinceroÃ¢â¬â¢s article Nature and Nurture Debate she discusses arguments for both sides, saying behavior may be completely in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s genes, or it could come from experience and influence. Many people believe Ã¢â¬Å"that the criminal acts, tendencyRead MoreNature And Nurture : Nature Vs. Nurture1780 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAs Nature Made Him: Nature vs. Nurture Human behavior is determined by both biological and environmental factors. Psychologists are interested in learning which of these factors is a greater influence on human behavior and identity. Although psychologists today generally agree that both nature and nurture play a role in conditioning behavior, there is still disagreement about the part that each of the factors have in determining behavior. The nature versus nurture debate focuses around the extentRead MoreNature Vs Nurture : Nature And Nurture1821 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Nature and nurture are usually seen as very different things, but they are actually somewhat similar and even integrated. There is a huge debate over which holds more influence over how people develop and whether they behave based on genes or their environment. In SinceroÃ¢â¬â¢s article Nature and Nurture Debate she discusses arguments for both sides, saying behavior may be completely in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s genes, or it could come from experience and influe nce. Many people believe Ã¢â¬Å"that the criminal acts, tendencyRead MoreNature Vs. Nurture : Nurture1405 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDecember 2015 Nature vs. Nurture Very few people know that the nature vs. nurture debate actually began early on with famous Greek philosophers such as Plato and Descartes. These two theorized that certain things were inborn and occurred naturally regardless of environmental factors (Cherry 1). Most people began to witness this debate in 1896 when the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"Nature vs. NurtureÃ¢â¬ was coined by English polymath, Francis Galton (Ã¢â¬Å"Nature vs. NurtureÃ¢â¬ Origins 1). At this point the nature vs. nurture debate grewRead MoreNature Vs. Nurture : Nurture901 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestime the proverbial nature vs. nurture question has sparked quite a debate. I hold the belief that nature vs. nurture is a zero-sum game. We essentially enter this existence, a lump of clay that needs molding in order to take form. So, I believe my creative abilities can be attributed to the sum of our genetic predisposition, the nurture of our mind, and the dynamic of both nature and nurture, with nurture being the predominant influencing factor. In psychology, nature refers to the inheritedRead MoreNature Vs Nurture And Nurture1777 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesformed and cultivated through nature or nurture. This psychological anomaly is why I am writing this paper. Ever since I have enrolled in, and taken, a psychology class during my junior year, I have questioned whether every little emotion and action is because of nature or nurture. No topic is more widely explored and researched than morality. It cannot be scientifically or psychologically proven or tested, making any claim highly controversial. This idea, of nature vs nurture, that I had previously researchedRead MoreThe Nature Vs. Nurture1463 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesT What can we define as Human Nature and Nurture? The Nature vs. Nurture has been a long never ending debate for some time now. Nature vs Nurture has been so profoundly debated, that now itÃ¢â¬â¢s unclear whether what makes us who we are and what we do, nature or nurture. For purposes of this essay Nature is going to be defined as characteristics we acquire through our genetic and biological factors, while that Nurture is going to be defined characteristics we acquire through our interactions and influencesRead MoreNature Vs. Nurture : Nature Versus Nurture1337 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNature vs. Nurture There are many different ways that behavior can be explained, especially on the terms of nature vs. nurture. Aggression is a behavior that has been extensively analyzed in a complex manner and the causes of it can be explained many different ways. Aggression can be defined as hostile or destructive behavior that can cause injury or destructive outlook especially when caused by frustration. Nature can be defined as aspects of behavior that have been inherited or are genetic, while
Friday, May 15, 2020
In 1692, the British colony of Massachusetts endured abnormal accusations of witchcraft against more than 150 people (Prentice Hall Literature, p. 1087). Many factors caused the witchcraft hysteria to come alive during the 1600Ã¢â¬â¢s. Two important factors were: Daemonologie, written by EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s King James I, and the bewildering behavior of the accusing teenage girls. While Arthur Miller explains that the accusations could have been made over the lust for land, there are also reasons not explained: how the role of women and children during the 17th century may have affected their behavior and the theory of Ergot fungus poisoning the girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ minds. While Daemonologie did solely focus on the existence of witches among people, it also had majorÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦During the actual witch trials in Salem, the same group of girls did not conjure in the woods, or dance nakedly during the night, but instead grouped together to listen to the stories of an Indian slave, Tituba, whose stories involved magic and power. The girls were also much younger in actuality than Miller depicts them to be in his play (Ã¢â¬Å"Salem Witch Trials History Channel.Ã¢â¬ YouTube). While Arthur Miller does touch on the subject of the witch trials bringing about opportunities for revenge against disliked neighbors or enemies, he does not mention the role of women and children during this time period. In the 17th century, as well as centuries before and after, the role of women was to serve their husband and fill his desires: bearing a child, meeting his sexual desires, keeping a clean household, and serving her family food. She was not to be seen as an equal to her husband or any other man, and rarely ever talked to her husband about matters involving business, religion, or important decisions (Ã¢â¬Å"Salem Witch Trials History Channel.Ã¢â¬ YouTube). The same concept applied to children during this time, with the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"children should be seen and not heard.Ã¢â¬ When the two qualities are put together, a female child, you can only imagine how inferior they felt and how insignificantly they were treated by surrounding men in the community. With this in mind, as well as consideringShow MoreRelatedEssay on Ergotism, Hysteria, and Disorders Detected in Salem889 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMany people believe the Salem Witch Trials were caused by Ergotism, while others believe it to be just a form of hysteria, but what if I told you it could have been all of those combined together with another theory added in? In the story, The Crucible, mass hysteria broke out all through Salem being caused by the witch trials. The witch trials, however, may not have been the only thing causing the hysteria. Argot poisoning in the water along with puritan pressure causing the little girls to actRead MoreThe Salem Witch Trial Hysteria1196 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesXochitl Neri Erick Felix In 1692-1693, the Salem Witch Trial Hysteria occurred, resulting in 20 deaths out of the 200 accused of practicing the DevilÃ¢â¬â¢s magic, a practice that women were commonly accused of. Salem, Massachusetts, was a colony that consisted of Puritans, both Separatists and non Separatists alike. From the start, the Puritans believed that the Bible was true in all aspects: every word, every idea, every thought--was true. The Puritans also had minimal understanding of science, whichRead MoreSalem Witch Trials : The Witch Trial Hysteria920 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSalem Witch Trial Hysteria In 1692 the actions of three girls quickly launched Salem onto the path of committing one of the largest witch hunts the New World has ever known. The witch hunt was fueled by a mass hysteria among the townspeople, this hysteria was the result of the strictness of their society and a number of internal and external stressors. The initial wave of panic when rumors of witchcraft arose gave way to compete hysteria when accusations began. Salem massachusetts was the perfectRead MoreSalem Witch Trial Hysteria Essay818 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTwenty people were put to death for witchcraft in Salem during the 1692 Salem Witch Trial Hysteria. In The Crucible, a woman, Elizabeth Proctor, gets accused of witchcraft by a young girl by the name Abigail Williams, who just so happens to be having an affair with ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s husband, John. Once John finds out Abigail accused his wife, he starts trying to find proof that all of these young girls are pretending that they are being hurt by these older women, just so that they will be hanged. The officialsRead MoreThe Salem Witch Trial Hysteria Of 1692879 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Salem Witch Trial hysteria of 1692 caused 20 people to be hung or pressed to death and 4 perished in jail. In addition, 200 people in Salem were accused of being witches. On June 10 of 1692, Bridget Bishop was charged with practicing witchcraft and she was also accused of bewitching her husband to dea th. The result of her not confessing was that she was hung to her death. All of this frenzy started in the house of Samuel Parris. His daughters were consumed by the bizarre tales told by their IndianRead MoreHysteria and the Crucible1695 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHysteria What is hysteria? By definition, hysteria is a state of intense agitation, anxiety, or excitement, especially as manifested by large groups or segments of society. In a broader sense however, hysteria is a killer, the delitescent devil. More specifically, hysteria was the main cause of nineteen deaths in the Salem Witch Trials of 1692, and countless ruined reputations on account of Joe McCarthy. Hysteria does not just appear out of nowhere though. There are driving forces such as revengeRead MoreThe Main Causes Of The Puritans In The Salem Witch Trials1527 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re a liar! IÃ¢â¬â¢m no more a witch than you are a wizard! If you take my life away, God will give you blood to drink!Ã¢â¬ This testimony is one out of the several given during the Salem Witch Trials which has become known as one of the mass hysterias to ever occur in American history. In 1692, individuals known as Puritans settled among a small village named Salem in what is now known as Massachusetts. The Puritans spent the beginning years of their settlement confronted with epidemics such as famineRead MoreThe Causes Of Fanaticism In The Salem Witch Trials750 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthe symptoms blamed on witchcraft, leading adding credibility to this reason. Additionally, this reason is the most logical and scientifically sound reason out of all of these documents, since it relied on biology. The second most important reason was probably the fanaticism that caused everyone to blame Satan for the witchcraft, which stopped people from looking for other reasons which may have caused the witchcraft. This fanaticism stopped people from looking at other causes of the symptoms, andRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1358 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstory deals with the Salem, Massachusetts hysteria in 1692 with an irrational fear of the devil. Witch hunts and false accusations resulted. Trials took place and resulted in the hanging and associated death of more than 20 p eople and the false imprisonment of many others. B. The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft. Ã¢â¬Å"From June through September of 1692, nineteen men and women, all having been convicted of witchcraft, were carted to GallowsRead MoreThe Hysteria Of The Salem Witch Trials1463 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAmong these issues, is the hysteria of the Salem Witch Trials that prosecuted women to be found worshippers of the devil. The Puritans found the necessity to exercise this crusade in order to stay by their moral codes of conformity which included witchcraft to be the greatest crime, punishable by death. However, the true reasons of the trials was not to simply follow their religious constitutions. It is mainly in part from corruption of religion and how some had used the trials as a form of personal
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Research on Climate Change 1. Weather and Climate are two completely different earth behaviors. Weather is an occurrence that happens to the atmosphere over a short period of time. For example in Indiana it may be really warm one day, but the next day it could snow. Climate is an occurrence to the atmosphere that happens over a long period of time. For example it has been show that over long periods of time the earth seems to be warming more and more each year. 2. According to my research, many scientists believe that the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere is warming. Some scientists attest the growing problem of global warming to the amount of greenhouse gases and carbon dioxide that human beings emit into the earth a year (Begley). According to a new report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Ã¢â¬Å"the earth s atmosphere, oceans, and lands are experiencing a warming trendÃ¢â¬ (Weatherwise). Many scientists agree that the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere is indeed warming, however the cause of why it happening tends to be where many disagree. 3. Many scientists attribute the warming of the atmosphere to human activity. In the late 19th century, some scientists discovered that temperatures began to rise, as a result of humans rise of emissions of greenhouse gases (Marshall). A recent study conducted shows, that the rate at which the earth is warming, is faster than anytime in the last 11,300 years, because of the CO2 emissions are growing rapidly each year (Marshall). Scientists are worried thatShow MoreRelatedA Research On Climate Change1831 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Should the studies on climate change possess validity, then numerous human activities have altered the atmosphere of the Earth for the worse. Several among these activities categorize under the macrocosm of transportation. As a species, the human race continues to create and produce, which may contain threatening consequences based on these reports. Inside the category of transportation, every subcategory seems to partake in this, including automobiles, aircrafts, shipping, and railways, amongRead MoreResearch Paper On Climate Change1120 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe four papers that I am looking at all have climate change in common and it is the recurring theme throughout the papers, they all look at different areas of both the U.K. and also into the Northern parts of the world. The main areas of study are; the west of Scotland, Northern Ireland, Britain as a whole and finally Greenland. These papers all look at different ways and use different methods so that they are able to under stand and learn from the climate that had occurred in the past, the methodsRead MoreResearch Article On Fires And Climate Change1026 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLibrary, I found a scholarly research article relating fires to climate change. This article is highly technical in nature. Through the extensive analysis of data, Liu, Goodrick and Heilman found that climate change and augmenting fire activity form a malicious cycle. Warm temperatures enable fuel moistures to decline, allowing fires to explode. Fires, more specifically large ones, emit enormous amounts of exhaust. They discovered that fire emissions help to worsen climate change. The main components ofRead MoreResearch Paper on Climate Change: the Myth of Global Warming4031 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesResearch Paper on Climate Change: The Myth of Global Warming DEDICATION This Research Paper is lovingly dedicated to our respective parents who have been our constant source of inspiration. They have given us the drive and discipline to tackle any task with enthusiasm and determination. Without their love and support this project would not have been made possible. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to acknowledge the contributions of the following group and individuals to the developmentRead MoreResearch Paper on Climate Change: the Myth of Global Warming4045 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesResearch Paper on Climate Change: The Myth of Global Warming DEDICATION This Research Paper is lovingly dedicated to our respective parents who have been our constant source of inspiration. They have given us the drive and discipline to tackle any task with enthusiasm and determination. Without their love and support this project would not have been made possible. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to acknowledge the contributions of the following group and individuals to the developmentRead MoreClimate Change : A Global Threat That Goes Beyond National Boundaries Essay1499 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe most likely to have major effects on societies in the years to come, is climate change. Climate change, which is a product of capitalistic practices of nation-states and individual consuming citizens, is a global threat that goes beyond national boundaries. As a result, this new challenge requires the production of high quality research from sociologists and social scientists; especially considering the role climate change has been playing recently in affecting patterns of migration and displacementRead MoreArticle Review: Why Sustainable Tourism Must Address Climate Change by Daniel Scott1278 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTourism and Climate Change Introduction This paper reviews Daniel Scotts article in the Journal of Sustainable Times Why sustainable tourism must address climate change. Objectives Scott takes issue with a previous article written by David Weaver in the Journal of Sustainable Times. According to Scotts narrative, Weaver presented several interrelated issues that essentially dispute some of the proven science of climate change. Climate change studies are valid and the research that has goneRead MorePreventing Infectious Diseases Due to Climate Changes872 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The essential method for preventing climate change from affecting human health is to stop climate change altogether. While some degree of climate change has already occurred, the idea is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the extend where this pheÃ ¬nomenon is considerably slowed. The inÃ ¬tergovernmental panel on climate change has determined that a 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (compared with 1990 levels) by 2050 will be necessary to stabilize the global temperature increase at 2Ã¢â¬â2Read MoreProject Proposal: Effects of Climate Change1322 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesProject Proposal: Effects of Climate Change The final research paper generated from the Project Proposal: Effects of Climate Change will discuss the question, what Americans can do to reduce climate change health effects? Various research publications by credible sources advise, global warming climate change has an affect on human health. Climate change and the impact on human health can be connected through direct or indirect variables. The Importance I feel as though if we start at a youngRead MoreGlobal Warming And Its Effects On The Environment Essay1516 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesclaim that the climate is changing for the worse. They believe that humans are the primary cause of these changes, especially the increase in temperature, caused by the burning of fossil fuels. They believe that the temperature changes are causing glaciers to melt. They claim that the melting of ice masses leads to a higher sea level and worsening conditions for Arctic animals, as well as other negative effects on the environment. Others do not agree with this. They say that the climate is not changing
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Analyzes short storys implications for meaning of life, human condition, family relations, identity, guilt punishment. Franz Kafkas The Metamorphosis uses a fantastic situation to create an allegory about the meaning of humanness and about the relationship of the individual to the world in which he lives. That relationship is involved here as the ties to that world are broken. Gregor Samsa awakens to find that he has been changed into a huge vermin. The only contact he has with the world in which he lived the night before is through the family members who can be heard moving around the house and who react to Gregors change in various ways. Underlying this story is the sense that Gregor is being punished for some unstated crime and that the universe has taken this means of inflicting that punishment. Yet it is more likely that the universe is meaningless, unmotivated, and absurd, and so the transformation that comes over Gregor cannot be explained with references to
Monday, April 13, 2020
Leaders are born not made? What is a leader? According to Dr. Paul Hersey, leadership is working with and through others to achieve objectives. Given this definition, anyone in a position whose achievement requires the support of others can play the role of a leader. So in my understanding, a great leader is both born and made. Both parts are essential to a true leader. SomeÃ people are born with innate qualities that predispose them to being leaders, and other people while not naturally gifted with leadership ability can acquire it. Moreover,Ã all leaders, born or made, can improve their ability with desire, experience and effort. At birth, we are all born with genes inherited from our parents, for a select few the genetic predispositions for the leadership qualities are more favourable toward leadership qualities. For example, our current president Benigno Ã¢â¬Å"NoynoyÃ¢â¬ Aquino III also known as PNoy, is in my opinion, a naturally born leader. We will write a custom essay sample on Leaders Are Born Not Made or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Being the son of former President Cory Aquino and Benigno Simeon Ninoy Aquino, Jr. , he has the genes of these great leaders who fought bravely for the country. He is a president who decides thoroughly and makes decisions that are right and just. After we are bornÃ for the first few years of our lives we are in constant interaction with others, some to which we attach real and sustained admiration and others where this admiration is punctual. From those interactions we refine our values and our natural behaviours are reinforced positively, which would increase the frequency of the behaviours or negatively which would diminish the frequency of the behaviours. Before you become a good leader, you first become a good followerÃ¢â¬ , that statement is proved by Napoleon Bonaparte the Ã¢â¬Å"Emperor of the FrenchÃ¢â¬ . Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe. His legal reform, the Napoleonic Code, has been a major influence on many civil law jurisdictions worldwide, but he is best remembered for his role in the war s led against France by a series of coalitions, the so-called Napoleonic Wars. But before achieving all this, he started from a scratch. He trained as an artillery officer in mainland France. He then followed orders from above until crawled his way up by showing his potentials until he finally was assigned to be a leader and led the successful invasion of the Italian Peninsula. Everyone can develop their capacity to lead. When someone is committed to, and practises using their leadership capabilities at all levels in their life, then they can and will develop their own potential as a leader. Therefore we can conclude there are indeed, born leaders. These are the people to whom others look, even from a very early age; they seem willing to be seen and heard, take risks, stand up for what they believe. They do have charisma, people want to hear what they have to say, they want to get things done and bring people along with them. In summary, I would conclude that while there are natural born leaders, leaders can indeed be Ã¢â¬Å"madeÃ¢â¬ or developed if one adopts a growth oriented mind-set. The bottom line is, it is not how a leader comes by their skill that is relevant whether he was naturally born a leader or became a leader by acquiring the skills of being. It only matters that they possess the requisite skills for the job, and that they are willing to apply those skills for the benefit of those they lead. There is no perfect leader, no single right way to lead, and no shortcuts to become a great leader.
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Definition and Examples of Episteme in Rhetoric In philosophy andÃ classical rhetoric, episteme is the domain of true knowledgein contrast to doxa, the domain of opinion, belief, or probable knowledge. The Greek word episteme is sometimes translated as science or scientific knowledge.Ã The word epistemology (the study of the nature and scope of knowledge) is derived fromÃ episteme.Ã Adjective: epistemic. French philosopher and philologist Michel Foucault (1926-1984) usedÃ the term epistemeÃ to indicate the total set of relations that unite a given period. Commentary [Plato] defends the solitary, silent nature of the search for epistemetruth: a search that leads one away from the crowd and the multitude. Platos aim is to take away from the majority the right to judge, choose, and decide. (Renato Barilli, Rhetoric. University of Minnesota Press, 1989) Knowledge and Skill [In Greek usage] episteme could mean both knowledge and skill, both knowing that and knowing how. . . . Each of the artisans, a smith, a shoemaker, a sculptor, even a poet exhibited episteme in practicing his trade. The word episteme, knowledge, was thus very close in meaning to the word tekhne, skill. (Jaakko Hintikka,Ã Knowledge and the Known: Historical Perspectives in Epistemology. Kluwer, 1991) Episteme vs. Doxa - Beginning with Plato, the idea of episteme was juxtaposed to the idea of doxa. This contrast was one of the key means by which Plato fashioned his powerful critique of rhetoric (Ijsseling, 1976; Hariman, 1986). For Plato, episteme was an expression, or a statement that conveys, absolute certainty (Havelock, 1963, p. 34; see also Scott, 1967) or a means for producing such expressions or statements. Doxa, on the other hand, was a decidedly inferior expression of opinion or probability...A world committed to the ideal of episteme is a world of clear and fixed truth, absolute certainty, and stable knowledge. The only possibility for rhetoric in such a world would be to make truth effective... A radical gulf is presumed to exist between discoveringÃ truth (the province of philosophy or science) and the lesser task of disseminating it (the province of rhetoric). (James Jasinski, Sourcebook on Rhetoric. Sage, 2001)- Since it is not in human nature to acquire knowledge (episteme) that would make us certain what to do or say, I consider one wise who has the ability through conjecture (doxai) to attain the best choice: I call philosophers those that engage themselves with that from which this sort of practical wisdom (phronesis) is speedily grasped. (Isocrates, Antidosis, 353 BC) Episteme and Techne I have no criticism to make of episteme as a system of knowledge. On the contrary, one can argue that we would not be human without our command of episteme. The problem is rather the claim made on behalf of episteme that it is all of the knowledge, from which stems its proclivity to crowd out other, equally important, systems of knowledge. While episteme is essential to our humanness, so is techne. Indeed, it is our ability to combine techne and episteme that sets us apart both from other animals and from computers: animals have techne and machines have episteme, but only we humans have both. (Oliver Sackss clinical histories (1985) are at once moving as well as entertaining evidence for the grotesque, bizarre, and even tragic distortions of human beings that result from a loss of either techne or episteme.) (Stephen A. Marglin, Farmers, Seedsmen, and Scientists: Systems of Agriculture and Systems of Knowledge.Ã Decolonizing Knowledge: From Development to Dialogue, ed. byÃ FrÃ ©dÃ ©rique Apffel-Marglin and Stephen A. Marglin. Oxford University Press, 2004) Foucaults Concept of Episteme [InÃ Michel Foucaults The Order of Things] the archaeological method attempts to uncover a positive unconscious of knowledge. This term denotes a set of rules of formation which are constitutive of the diverse and heterogeneous discourses of a given period and which elude the consciousness of the practitioners of these different discourses.Ã This positive unconscious of knowledge is also captured inÃ the term episteme. The episteme is the condition of possibility of discourse in a given period; it is an a priori set of rules of formation that allow discourses to function, that allow different objects and different themes to be spoken at one time but not at another. Source:Ã (Lois McNay,Ã Foucault: A Critical Introduction. Polity Press, 1994)
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Genetically engineered trees - Essay Example Evaluating the risks against the potential gain from this science can aid us in reaching a reasonable conclusion about the safety of engineered trees and the caution needed to pursue this science. The possibility of genetically engineered paper has been possible since 1998 when a team of researchers at Michigan State University engineered an aspen tree to produce higher-grade paper pulp (Lubick). The economic pressure to initiate large-scale transgenic tree plantations is enormous and according to Lubick, "[...] trees are the next big crop plant". The paper and lumber industry stands to reap hundreds of millions of dollars in profits from the increased pulp and wood production that is available from these trees (Lubick). The pressure from business, and the ability of the trees to cross pollinate for hundreds of miles, places us dangerously close to spreading the new genetic species globally on a massive scale. Critics argue that once the new genetic strains are turned loose in the wild, there will be no turning back. Trees that create their own pesticides may kill off desirable insects and leave the forest unable to support wildlife ("Genetic Engineering"). Trees that are resistant to pests and disease may take over parks and national forests with a "kudzu-like threat" ("Genetic Engineering").